The City of San Marino is the capital city of the Republic of San Marino on the Italian peninsula, near the Adriatic Sea. The city has a population of 4,493. It is on the western slopes of San Marino's highest point, Monte Titano. Although the capital, most of the businesses are in Borgo Maggiore. It is the third largest city in the country, after Dogana and Borgo Maggiore.
It borders the San Marino municipalities Acquaviva, Borgo Maggiore, Fiorentino, and Chiesanuova and the Italian municipality San Leo. The city was founded Saint Marinus and several Christian refugees in the year 301. From then on the city became a center of Christian refugees who fled from the Roman persecutions, which caused that the city become the oldest republic of Europe, for the Sanmarinense territory at that time corresponded to the single city of San Marino.
The urban heart of the city was protected by three towers: the first, Guaita, constructed in the 11th century, had intraspasable fame, which to a great extent reduced the attacks to the city. Due to Crusades, the necessity was seen to construct a second tower, Cesta (13th century). But the Sanmarinense defensive system was not completed until the construction of the one third tower, - the Montale (14th century) - smallest of all and constructed on the last one of summits of the Monte Titano.
With the population of the city increasing, the territory of the country was extended by a few kilometers. Since the Sanmarinese policy is not to invade or use war for the obtaining of new territories, it is by means of purchases and of treaties that San Marino manage to obtain the other nine castello that is part of San Marino.
It is the most ancient and one of the smallest countries in the world.
Located on the Titano hill - 750-meter-high provides the tourists with an amazing panorama over the nearby villages, towns and the sea. The three towers are the symbol of the country, its glory, sign of history and traditions so much appreciated not only among the foreigners. In San Marino you cannot miss to see the three fortresses on Monte Titano: the Fortress of Guaita (perhaps XI century, rebuilt in the XV), the Cesta (XIII c., rebuilt) with the Museum of Ancient Weapons, the Montale (XIII c., rebuilt in 1935). The church of San Francesco (XIV c., transformed between the XVII and XVIII c.) and the nearby Museum with an Adoration of the Magi by Antonio Alverti. The piazzetta del Titano, with the Palazzo Pergami Belluzzi, linked to the Porta della Rupe from via Carducci. Piazza della liberta, with the palazzo del Governo. Main sights
* Palazzo dei Capitani
* Palazzo Pubblico
* The Three Towers of San Marino
* Piazza del Titano
* Piazza Garibaldi
* Monastery of Santa Clara
* Grand Hotel San Marino
The town is known for its long, windy cobblestoned streets, as its altitude and steep approach put it beyond the reach of the San Marino Superhighway. San Marino is also notable in the sense that cars are prohibited in much of the town center. Before the Second World War a railway was built from here to Rimini under the dictatorship of Benito Mussolini. Its tunnels, and the railway station 'Piazzale Lo Stradone', still exist. Proposals for the re-opening of this railway have been presented to the government on several occasions, but thus far without action. There is a regular bus service to Rimini, and a 1.5 km cable car connects the capital with Borgo Maggiore.
FESTIVALS AND FAIRS
5th February is the celebration of Saint Agatha with its particular ceremony and procession which passes the most important parts of the country - the historical city centre, Borgo Maggiore, the Basilicas, . Every year, for a week San Marino returns to the Medieval Times with typical medieval traditions, ceremonies, clothes, food and history. 6-day Ethno festival is dedicated to sounds, colours and history of the world. 3 September is the feast of the Republic and the day of the Saint Founder.